The squash bug is a sinister little insect that is commonly found on pumpkin and other squash plants. They’re pretty destructive in the spring when seedlings are tender and young, but not as much in the summer and fall when plants are able to handle the destruction.
The squash bug, loves to much on squash plants and pumpkins (along with any other plant in the cucurbit family), so if you see a bug on your squash plants, it’s probably a squash bug.
So, how do we take care of the problem before it really becomes one? We learn to identify the insect, then learn what they do, and figure out how to keep it from happening (at least on a grand scale).
Identifying Squash Bugs
The squash bug (anasa tristis) is pretty widespread across the entire United States. Adults are brown or grey in color, and a little over a half inch long as adults.
They are commonly mistaken as what most folks call stink bugs because they look very similar, but stink bugs are actually a bit more round. However, both the squash bug and the stink bug smell when squished.
The nymphs are small, grey bugs with black legs. They typically gather on the underside of leaves on your favorite garden plants.
These insects can overwinter in buildings, in dead leaves, under boards, etc. They will fly to the garden as soon as the vines are sprouting and the females lay eggs on the underside of the plants. The eggs will be in masses, underneath the leaves and look like little brown eggs.
The squash bug can fly, but typically once they reach your garden, they simply crawl around. You’ll find adults on damaged plants, crawling around looking for their next victim.
Identifying Squash Bug Damage
Search, conquer, and destroy! Seriously, they will make your plants leaves turn black and die off.
These bugs have piercing suckers for mouths. They pierce the plant, inject a toxin, and suck out the sap from the plant.
This results in young tender plants wilting away. The actual condition is called ansa wilt and while this isn’t a true plant disease, the effects appear very similar to the actual disease of bacterial wilt (a disease spread by cucumber beetles).
This makes it important that you properly identify the insect you’re dealing with so you can manage it appropriately.
Rest assured that mature, established plants can typically bounce back from the bugs feeding off of them. But, young tender plants typically die off and a huge infestation can kill the most established of plants. Which is why it’s important to deal with as soon as you notice a problem.
How to Get Rid of Squash Bugs, Naturally
Squash bugs can be incredibly difficult to kill. Especially after the eggs hatch and you have adult bugs on your hands, which means it’s important to detect these critters early!
If you already have a problem with them, there are a few things you can do to try to solve the issue, but you might want to take some of these other tips into consideration when harvesting this season and planting next.
Utilize Row Covers
Just like keeping cabbage worms off of your cabbages, the same principle applies.
Row covers keep your plants protected from adults being able to fly onto your plants. If they can’t fly onto the plant, they can’t lay eggs on them, which stops the cycle. You only need to keep the covers on until your plants are large and well-established.
I will warn you, though, if you didn’t make a plan last fall, you may still get them (see the next tip).
Dispose of infested plants after harvest
The plants that were affected by the bugs this year will have eggs on them. Unfortunately, the eggs can overwinter in your garden space, hatch in the spring, and cause a whole new problem.
So, remove all of the plant remnants of any infested plant from your garden as soon after harvest as possible and burn or hot-compost them immediately.
Utilize Crop Rotation
While you should be doing this anyway as it prevents nutrient depletion, you need to make sure you rotate your crops annually.
Disposing of infested plants after you harvest helps immensely, but if you plant your crop somewhere else entirely the following year, you’re even less likely for overwintering insects to hatch and find their way to your plants.
Check for & Remove Eggs & Insects Daily
Squash bugs can creep in when you don’t notice and become a problem quickly, so it’s important to keep your eye out for adults, nymphs and eggs. You’ll often find them on the underside of leaves and if you see damage, they’re around there somewhere.
You can make a bucket of dishwater (just dish soap and water) and place all of the eggs, nymphs, and adults in the bucket. Then, just pour it out wherever (they’ll be dead, so it’s not a problem).
Start Cucurbit Seeds Indoors
Instead of direct sowing your cucurbit crops, you can start seeds indoors. This can avoid small, tender seedlings from being killed before they have a chance.
It also means less time for the plant to be outside which translates to less time for populations to grow.
Mulch and squash bugs kind of have a love-hate relationship. While mulching helps keep garden weeds under control and keep appropriate moisture, these guys actually seem to be drawn to the cool mulches as hiding places.
This is especially true of things like straw. But, this doesn’t mean you can’t utilize the benefits of mulching your garden. Just don’t use mulch right up against the base of your plant (which isn’t a good idea anyway).
Add Guinea Fowl
These birds are pretty awesome. They are great at pest control for insects like cabbage worms, all the way to ticks and helping get rid of snakes.
Forewarning, though. They are very, very loud and will alarm at virtually anything, so they’re not for everyone.
Using diatomaceous earth can be great to help get rid of squash bugs, but it also kills off beneficial insects (that can also help keep your pest population under control).
However, used sparingly, you can safely dust your plants with it to reduce the amount of bugs you have, just remember it kills the good and the bad, it’s not selective.
Plant Resistant Varieties
Using resistant varieties can be helpful, especially if you have a major infestation. Butternut, royal acorn, and and sweet cheese varieties are all resistant to squash bugs.
Homemade Squash Bug Repellent
This is fairly easy to make and organic, which is good in my book. To make you’ll just mix:
- 8 Ounces Water
- 2 Tablespoons Eucalyptus Oil
Put it in a spray bottle, and shake it very well before using. Simply spray it on the plant after shaking the mixture well. This will not harm the plant and can be sprayed as often as necessary.
10. Homemade repellent – This is easy and doesn’t stink. It doesn’t contain harmful chemicals, so I’m all for it. To make, just mix together 8 oz of water and 2 Tablespoons of eucalyptus oil in a spray bottle. You have to shake this well to use it (in order to disperse oil in water) but once you shake it up really well a few times, spray the plant.